The toilet is a basic need available in many households. Over the years, toilets have evolved depending on the revolution era as well as location and the living standards of the people. The current toilets are only possible to be in a homestead with sufficient supply of water and septic tanks or sewers system otherwise the old pit latrines are ideal.
The history of toilets dates back in three eras, the ancient era, middle age era and the modern era. All these had distinct toilet features determined by the financial status and their living standards.
The ancient era
Toilets can be inside or outside the houses. Ancient farmers built pit latrines inside their house to avoid human-animal conflict from the jungle. Egyptians hold a history of toilet differences between the rich and slaves. The rich had well-constructed toilets with amenities while slaves used the wooden stool, with a container for collecting the wastes. It had to be emptied at intervals.
Flush toilets were first developed during civilization in the Indus valley, they dug the sewer system to direct all the waste one flushed.
Romans were not left out either in the history of toilets. They were the first to construct public toilets. Funny enough, they had a god of the sewer- a clear indication of the value of the toilets. They also had hierarchies in financial status. The public toilets were poorly built, with no partitions compromising privacy. Hygiene after using the toilets was also wanting. These made the project to fail since the poor still found the streets more private than the public toilets. Despite these, the wealthy Romans had better flush toilets.
The middle age era
The middle age dates back in the 12th century. Pit latrines were the major type of pits with wooden seats or stones. They were built along rivers, seas and water bodies, which acted as the sewer system as the river flows. The middle times of the era, they constructed garderobe- a toilet with a vertical tunnel and a seat made of stone, directed to a trench for emptying.
The rich used rags as tissues paper to wipe their buttocks while the poor had a specific type of plant with a woolen texture to wipe their bottoms.
This era started in the beginning of the 16th century where Sir John Harrington established the first flush toilet cistern as modern toilet design. Although the idea did not pick up it was later used by the wealthy through the 18th century. In the 19th century, the flush toilets were common among the wealthy while the pit latrines still dominated the rural areas. These are some example of the modern era of toilet: http://www.thebestflushingtoilet.com/one-piece-reviews/,http://thebestflushingtoilet.com/toto-reviews.
- Classic and portrays a sense of class.
- They require constant water supply
- They are expensive to construct
- They need a sewer system for disposal
- They are hygienic
- Can be used in any location
- Materials for construction are readily available
- Cheap to construct
Currently, the two types of toilets are widely used within the households. Some homes have one while others have both.
Table tennis is an indoor game whose popularity was seen after the Second World War II. The championship held in 1950 was the first to recognize table Tennis as an international sport. Tennis tables have not evolved much since the invention of the indoor game. Manufacturers have added a few accessories to allow it to perform better and allow bouncing of the ball. Some of the areas the Tennis table has improved include
The table size
The first table lacked a standard size for playing. As long as adults could comfortably bend, it was considered the best size. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) has given put the standard measurements for all tennis tables and manufacturers have factored in that in their production. The table is 9ft long, and 2.76 m in length. It should have a net of 15.25 cm height and the width of the table should be152.5cm. The net should hang at a height of 15.25cm. These are the official dimensions for a standard table.
Material used in establishments
The federation recommends used of wooden tables or equivalents with steel net and paddles(check paddle comparison here: http://bestpingpongtables.review/paddle). This is because of the durability and their ability to withstand vigorous play associated with the game. The table should have an inner sponge lining- to support ball bouncing with a uniform dark color- usually dark blue or forest green. The stand should also be wooden or look like to support friction. The net divides the table length into two equal halves. The old tennis table used both the wooden for the tabletops and metallic stands for support. After the ITTF gave out guidelines and standardization procedures, the modern table was adopted and they are the ones found in the stores. For home use or children, these might not apply other materials and customized tables are available like cartoon tabletops.
The table stands
The old table stands were poorly of wooden cuboid shapes, but currently, there are both wooden and metallic rods making them portable with increases support base.
Scoreboard connected to the tennis table
The traditional table lacked the gadget to connect it to the scoreboard. Counting and recording of scores were done manually; at some point, when the game is tense and vigorous a scorer might lose count of the scores. Technologists and manufacturers have teamed up to sort the menace in the creation of the modern tables. They have a card slot at the bottom side of the table top connected to a wide scoreboard, where when a player wins he presses a button using the butt which is recognized and tailored with the player’s name to register a score. It has made scoring and recording easier and faster.
The invention of the tennis tables has not had a paradigm shift. It is just simple modifications on table sizes and dimensions as well as the incorporation of technology in scoring. The old tables can be used by children and adult who do not eye competition but just for physical fitness.
The first cabinet table saw was recorded in 1777 in the United States by Samuel Miller – an English Man. A table saw offers all wooden and metal cutting needs. It had a blade, which was made of steel and cast iron- a heavy metal which can withstand friction and intensive cutting process. They are also known for reduction of vibration while enhancing on accuracy. The cabinet stored motors and the dust collector, motors provided power to run the blade, although there are some which are purely hand powered. The cabinet had adjustable knobs to accommodate different height and allow dust collection through a dust collector, which can hinder the blade from cutting. The blade is circular to improve on accuracy when operating the machine.
This woodworking tool(www.bestcabinettablesaw.com/hybrid-reviews) was massively used by the military to cut through various premises during their operations and training. The circular saw rotates because of rotary motion. The speed of rotation is intense allowing the tool to penetrate through the hardwood and heavy metals. The blades are replaceable to accommodate different types of material that need to be cut. When you require heavy cutting of metal you fix a thick and stronger circular blade; the rest of the parts are intact.
It is used by a single user to operate the machine; once mounted on a table top, the clamp makes a better grip so that, the material being cut does not slip and cause injury. The circular saw is better than the up down saw, hence highly recommended during that time before the invention of an electric power saw. The sound was louder compared to the earlier types of saws.
How it works
Once you have clamped the material to the blade on a tabletop to support depth and the lower parts of the material. You slowly push the material to the blade while watching the rate at which it cuts, which determines the strength you input to place the material. The rotary motion and the sharp blade supports cutting of the material. Loose chippings are collected down using the collector they are raw materials for the inner fitting of furniture like the blackboard.
Comparison of the new and old circular saws
The first circular saw had a blade with a sharp tooth. They were efficient in cutting small pieces of wood and lathing tasks. In the 18th century, the invention of larger circular blades to run massive and commercial based cutting operations. This means they required more power which was not easy to handle using the hand hence the invention of the steam and motor engines to power the machines.
The first circular saw was ideal for DIY projects, which required simple cuttings for small sized woods and metal just like how joint planers that can do the job. Although they were tiresome and cumbersome to use, they provided the necessary power to run simple homemade projects. The tooth blades were replaceable once worn out. Traditional wood and metal cutting were a form of physical exercise since most of the machines were manually operated.