Humanity has had a long and varied history. Life in the early days of human civilization was very different from life as we know it today. Many things which we take for granted now, like electricity, food security, refrigeration and a dependable water supply, weren’t available to our early ancestors. Despite the advancements in technology and human understanding over the ages, there are still many common traits and rituals which we still practice to this day. Good examples of this are basic industries like agriculture and craftsmanship. Another thing we share with our early ancestors is our need and requirement of clean and hygienic toilets.
Toilets are some of the most important rooms in any house or building. It’s the only place where a person is free to relieve himself or herself. Excretion is a daily task of pivotal importance which is hard to accomplish in a hygienic manner without the use of toilets. The modern plumbing system has made toilets safer by ensuring that waste matter cannot contaminate other places. Without this assurance of safety, we’d have to worry about protecting ourselves from diseases which would spread as a result of contamination.
Unfortunately, most ancient civilizations didn’t have plumbing systems as sophisticated as ours. As a result, many residents had to suffer at the hand of diseases which could have been prevented. Aside from this shortcoming, toilets in the ancient world were advanced as they could be, at least in the large civilizations. While people back then certainly didn’t have access to comfy flush toilet seats, what they did have were special huts designed for the act of excretion. Yes, in those days, the toilet was separate from the main house or building. This was done to ensure that smell of waste matter wouldn’t pervade the main premises of the building. A separate building was the easiest way of ensuring the containment of smell to a single place, from where it could dissipate into the atmosphere. As you could imagine, this arrangement was quite inconvenient. To make access to water easy, basins and water baths were separate from the building used to excrete. Since these functions didn’t cause any foul smells, they could be installed as part of the main building.
Toilets weren’t the only utility which our ancestors were fond off. In addition, they enjoyed saunas as much as we do. Saunas, for the uninitiated, are rooms where people can sit disrobed and enjoy the sensation of warm steam and avail numerous benefits to health. Currently, there are two varieties of saunas: saunas which use infrared radiation to warm the air and produce steam and those which use conventional methods such as a fire for heating. The former is more prevalent these days since it is safer and easier to use. However, since they are based on technology, you’ll need to read up on some tips when buying an infrared saunas to make sure you’re getting a good product.
The latter variety of saunas were the ones used in ancient times. Finland was the first place where saunas were used. This legacy is easily evidenced by the fact that almost every house in Finland has room for a sauna. Old Finnish saunas used fire to heat up rocks. These hot rocks were then sprinkled with water which produced steam and heated the air. Today, this type of sauna is called savusauna or smoke sauna.
Grilling as a cooking method is the modern form of smoking. In the ancient times where technology and industrialization had not reached the current milestone, the smoking food was the main technique used in cooking meals. The old appreciate the flavor and the taste of the food, the new generation feels it is a primitive method of cooking and prefer the modern method not knowing the science behind the food preparation is still the same.
In the ancient times, charcoal and wood were the main sources of energy for the smoker. The smoker was a simple pan where charcoal was placed and a grill placed right above the heat source for the food to cook from a distance and away from direct heat, which could lead to burning. The early man who lived in the caves was creative enough to make a smoker from the three stones and a metallic plate to place the food ready for cooking. The heat and temperature were not regulated but they were intelligent enough and used their strong sense of smell to regulate and know when the food is ready or not.
In the pre-colonial era, light industries came into existence and heavy metallic pans now replaced the stones, the grill made from metal still they had to use wood or charcoal. The low world population and thick vegetation were a perfect environment to get charcoal and wood fuel without the fear of climate change due to disruption of the hydrological cycle responsible for constant rainfall and good weather for agriculture.
Industrialization era saw an upgraded version of the metallic pans and wood pellet cookers to a more developed form. The main reason for this is the developer wanted to have an experience of grilled food, at the comfort of their homes. In fact, this is the era where houses now had a design of a fireplace in the sitting room for this purpose. In this era, manufacturers developed various kinds of smokers to meet the growing demand for grilled meals as well as the taste of class and style in the kitchen department.
Charcoal and wood smokers(http://bestsmokers.review) were still taking center stage but a more upgraded version of the same. They were now made of lightweight metallic substance to allow portability and flexibility in handling the smokers. They also had a chimney where smoke could be ejected out; efficient for indoor use. The main advantage of the old smokers was the availability of wood as a source of energy; otherwise, it had many disadvantages which include:
- You could only use it when the weather was conducive
- The level of hygiene was compromised
- The user had to constantly keep watch of the food, to avoid overcooking or burning
- Regulation of temperature was poor
- It needed creativity and innovation to ensure the meal was perfect
We cannot completely say the old smokers were not the best, they were the best during that time based on the level of technology and industrialization. Currently, the same technology is used but the forms of smokers have improved because of availability of more sources of energy.
Ironing is a life skill essential for all men and women. It makes you neat and tidy and also save time removing clothes wrinkles. It also makes you classy and professional. You do not want to meet an interviewee with a creased cloth; a first impression is a disorganized person who does not care about herself. Who cannot be trusted with responsibility? The first iron box used charcoal as the source of power while the current uses an iron steamer. The idea behind ironing is passing hot air on the clothes to make the fabric straighten. Not all fabric are ironed that is why clothing labels are there attached on clothes for ironing care instructions because not all are gentle on fabric.
In this article, we will compare the features of the two types of ironing
Source of power
Traditional ironing used an iron box with charcoal and coconut shells. Once they heat up they are placed inside the iron box which has holes for oxygen supply- oxygen supports burning. The lower part of the iron box is made of heavy metal which does not rust and easily cleaned to avoid rust from staining the clothes. Comparatively, the modern ironing uses a steam iron with electricity as the source of power. The system is automated with a thermostat inbuilt in the iron steamer iron box to regulate the heat to suit every fabric.
Size and portability
The old iron box was heavy because of the heavy metal used and the wooden handle makes it weighty to use in as much as it is portable. The iron steamer is made of metal only at the bottom end, which comes into contact with the clothing. The rest is either heat proof plastic and colored. It is not a good insulator of heat otherwise, it will not be able to be handled because of excess heat.
The old metal required great care to avoid contact with water which results into rusting of the metal; Otherwise, it does not require cleaning. In case there is a stain on the bottom when a cloth sticks at the bottom, part due to excess heat, you can use a metal and rub it, the friction removes it. Other stains naturally get off because of the heat. You will find steamer products do not need any cleaning.
The iron steamer has an inbuilt heat regulator controlled by a knob, while the charcoal iron box has no automated heat regulator, in case the heat is too much for the fabric, you have to remove some hot charcoal, if it’s too low you add and wait for it to heat up the continue with the ironing. The traditional ironing method was cumbersome.
Both the modern and traditional ironing share some similarities. You have to place a thick fabric beneath the cloth to offer support and prevent excess heat from coming into contact with the furniture. In addition, they all has one aim of straightening clothes and removing creases.
The current ironing method is simple, easier and faster. Although traditional ironing methods are still in existence in areas, where there is no supply of electricity.
Camera obscura is an old concept for old cameras before technological revolution. It depicts the history of photography because of the same concept used in photography. The science behind it is that the object has to be in a dark room so that the height of the camera reflects on the image for a clearer image. It ensures you project the image from a small pin hole or using a lens to widen and increase the size of the object. The reverse-inverted image concept helps to bring out a clearer image. This was the concept used in photographic camera and development of new cameras before the digital era.
The camera obscura was developed in the 16th century after “cubiculum obscurum”, “”, “conclave obscurum” cubiculum tenebricosum and “locus obscurus. The initial use of the camera obscura was without a lens then the introduction of the lens led to the use of the photographic films. The lensless camera was only for homemade use yet the lens uses was for commercial photography.
The main disadvantage was it was not able to reflect on color hence black and white images. The distance between the pinhole and the screen was essential to widen the view of the environment as well as avid usage of bright light which interferes with the smooth texture of the image produced. The image was printed on a special paper to reflect the object.
Camera obscura using the pinhole reduced the size of the hole to increase the size of the image and to improve on image sharpness and enhance on focus. A small pinhole also reduces the size of the image, although the focus is better. Diffraction is the reason behind poor focus.
Remember the mirror concept. This is the same concept camera obscura uses to reflect on the image. To get the correct image, you have to change the part in an inverted position, since light travels in a straight line meaning the image from the lens are always inverted, to get the right image inversion is required. This phenomenon has been disapproved by Aristotle using the pieces of evidence on images from the sun rays appear circular irrespective of the shape of the object. Physicians are still in discovery on the right explanation for this.
The first box camera used this to invent Kodak, the first photographic film with tripod, this tripod is used when travelling alone. The only difference was the shutter speed to help in getting images on transit. It is the camera that was used to get pictures from films and underground images.
Technological innovation has made photography simple and easy. Different gadgets have inbuilt cameras a clear indication of advanced technology on size and lens to improve on focus. It has also seen the real-time view of images seconds after capture. The film had to be filled and no exposure to external light which interferes with the old photographs. This is something of the past; you can store images on internal and external storage gadgets for both soft copy and hard copy viewing, specially lightweight portable computer are not yet popular that time to store these images.
The toilet is a basic need available in many households. Over the years, toilets have evolved depending on the revolution era as well as location and the living standards of the people. The current toilets are only possible to be in a homestead with sufficient supply of water and septic tanks or sewers system otherwise the old pit latrines are ideal.
The history of toilets dates back in three eras, the ancient era, middle age era and the modern era. All these had distinct toilet features determined by the financial status and their living standards.
The ancient era
Toilets can be inside or outside the houses. Ancient farmers built pit latrines inside their house to avoid human-animal conflict from the jungle. Egyptians hold a history of toilet differences between the rich and slaves. The rich had well-constructed toilets with amenities while slaves used the wooden stool, with a container for collecting the wastes. It had to be emptied at intervals.
Flush toilets were first developed during civilization in the Indus valley, they dug the sewer system to direct all the waste one flushed.
Romans were not left out either in the history of toilets. They were the first to construct public toilets. Funny enough, they had a god of the sewer- a clear indication of the value of the toilets. They also had hierarchies in financial status. The public toilets were poorly built, with no partitions compromising privacy. Hygiene after using the toilets was also wanting. These made the project to fail since the poor still found the streets more private than the public toilets. Despite these, the wealthy Romans had better flush toilets.
The middle age era
The middle age dates back in the 12th century. Pit latrines were the major type of pits with wooden seats or stones. They were built along rivers, seas and water bodies, which acted as the sewer system as the river flows. The middle times of the era, they constructed garderobe- a toilet with a vertical tunnel and a seat made of stone, directed to a trench for emptying.
The rich used rags as tissues paper to wipe their buttocks while the poor had a specific type of plant with a woolen texture to wipe their bottoms.
This era started in the beginning of the 16th century where Sir John Harrington established the first flush toilet cistern as modern toilet design. Although the idea did not pick up it was later used by the wealthy through the 18th century. In the 19th century, the flush toilets were common among the wealthy while the pit latrines still dominated the rural areas. These are some example of the modern era of toilet: http://www.thebestflushingtoilet.com/one-piece-reviews/,http://thebestflushingtoilet.com/toto-reviews.
- Classic and portrays a sense of class.
- They require constant water supply
- They are expensive to construct
- They need a sewer system for disposal
- They are hygienic
- Can be used in any location
- Materials for construction are readily available
- Cheap to construct
Currently, the two types of toilets are widely used within the households. Some homes have one while others have both.
Table tennis is an indoor game whose popularity was seen after the Second World War II. The championship held in 1950 was the first to recognize table Tennis as an international sport. Tennis tables have not evolved much since the invention of the indoor game. Manufacturers have added a few accessories to allow it to perform better and allow bouncing of the ball. Some of the areas the Tennis table has improved include
The table size
The first table lacked a standard size for playing. As long as adults could comfortably bend, it was considered the best size. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) has given put the standard measurements for all tennis tables and manufacturers have factored in that in their production. The table is 9ft long, and 2.76 m in length. It should have a net of 15.25 cm height and the width of the table should be152.5cm. The net should hang at a height of 15.25cm. These are the official dimensions for a standard table.
Material used in establishments
The federation recommends used of wooden tables or equivalents with steel net and paddles(check paddle comparison here: http://bestpingpongtables.review/paddle). This is because of the durability and their ability to withstand vigorous play associated with the game. The table should have an inner sponge lining- to support ball bouncing with a uniform dark color- usually dark blue or forest green. The stand should also be wooden or look like to support friction. The net divides the table length into two equal halves. The old tennis table used both the wooden for the tabletops and metallic stands for support. After the ITTF gave out guidelines and standardization procedures, the modern table was adopted and they are the ones found in the stores. For home use or children, these might not apply other materials and customized tables are available like cartoon tabletops.
The table stands
The old table stands were poorly of wooden cuboid shapes, but currently, there are both wooden and metallic rods making them portable with increases support base.
Scoreboard connected to the tennis table
The traditional table lacked the gadget to connect it to the scoreboard. Counting and recording of scores were done manually; at some point, when the game is tense and vigorous a scorer might lose count of the scores. Technologists and manufacturers have teamed up to sort the menace in the creation of the modern tables. They have a card slot at the bottom side of the table top connected to a wide scoreboard, where when a player wins he presses a button using the butt which is recognized and tailored with the player’s name to register a score. It has made scoring and recording easier and faster.
The invention of the tennis tables has not had a paradigm shift. It is just simple modifications on table sizes and dimensions as well as the incorporation of technology in scoring. The old tables can be used by children and adult who do not eye competition but just for physical fitness.
The first cabinet table saw was recorded in 1777 in the United States by Samuel Miller – an English Man. A table saw offers all wooden and metal cutting needs. It had a blade, which was made of steel and cast iron- a heavy metal which can withstand friction and intensive cutting process. They are also known for reduction of vibration while enhancing on accuracy. The cabinet stored motors and the dust collector, motors provided power to run the blade, although there are some which are purely hand powered. The cabinet had adjustable knobs to accommodate different height and allow dust collection through a dust collector, which can hinder the blade from cutting. The blade is circular to improve on accuracy when operating the machine.
This woodworking tool(www.bestcabinettablesaw.com/hybrid-reviews) was massively used by the military to cut through various premises during their operations and training. The circular saw rotates because of rotary motion. The speed of rotation is intense allowing the tool to penetrate through the hardwood and heavy metals. The blades are replaceable to accommodate different types of material that need to be cut. When you require heavy cutting of metal you fix a thick and stronger circular blade; the rest of the parts are intact.
It is used by a single user to operate the machine; once mounted on a table top, the clamp makes a better grip so that, the material being cut does not slip and cause injury. The circular saw is better than the up down saw, hence highly recommended during that time before the invention of an electric power saw. The sound was louder compared to the earlier types of saws.
How it works
Once you have clamped the material to the blade on a tabletop to support depth and the lower parts of the material. You slowly push the material to the blade while watching the rate at which it cuts, which determines the strength you input to place the material. The rotary motion and the sharp blade supports cutting of the material. Loose chippings are collected down using the collector they are raw materials for the inner fitting of furniture like the blackboard.
Comparison of the new and old circular saws
The first circular saw had a blade with a sharp tooth. They were efficient in cutting small pieces of wood and lathing tasks. In the 18th century, the invention of larger circular blades to run massive and commercial based cutting operations. This means they required more power which was not easy to handle using the hand hence the invention of the steam and motor engines to power the machines.
The first circular saw was ideal for DIY projects, which required simple cuttings for small sized woods and metal just like how joint planers that can do the job. Although they were tiresome and cumbersome to use, they provided the necessary power to run simple homemade projects. The tooth blades were replaceable once worn out. Traditional wood and metal cutting were a form of physical exercise since most of the machines were manually operated.